Spruces are pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged, needlelike leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base. The base remains as a peglike projection on the twig when the leaf falls. The persistent-scaled cones are egg-shaped or cylindrical and characteristically hang downward once fertilized.
Spruce is light and soft, but nevertheless has good strength and elasticity properties for its relatively light weight. It is not very susceptible to shrinkage and when dried remains stable. Its low natural durability can be compensated for by applying a protective coat of paint. It is less well suited to impregnation.
Spruce can be worked with all tools and machines. It is easy to saw, plane, drill and sand as well as to slice or peel, to split or shred. Connections can equally be made using nails, screws or glue. It is straightforward to paint, less easy to impregnate, especially the heartwood.
Spruce wood is available as round and sawn timber, as laminated timber and veneer.
Other names: Common spruce, red spruce, (red fir)
– Building and construction
– Interior finishing, furniture
– Manufacture of composite wood materials